Recent Posts

  The use of language in visual art was in the past very restricted till the early twentieth century, when Braque and Picasso started using language in their works (paintings) and since then photographers and artists started adopting the concept of language in visual images. Nowadays, images either in the media or TV, or ads, the use of words has become a very crucial component that helps encouraging the viewers for products and to admit the ad images.

    David Galenson says that language has an essential impact in Ruscha throughout his works. He became famous for his images such as standard gas station California’s icons, Fox Logo in the 20th century. Then, he increasingly moved to painting single words, often are portrayed as three dimensional objects. He sees that becoming interested in words is a result of printed media influence. For Ruscha, books, magazines, newspaper-words- could be more meaningful.

     In other words, language played a crucial role in the development of art such as Ruscha’s paintings, Braque and Picasso as well. Galenson here gave us the example of Ruscha’s paintings and he talked about the importance of language in images, thus, the words in images take visual interests among the people of the community. Visual rhetoric can be a manifestation of communication that creates meaning or constructs an argument. In addition to that, the main function of the advertisement is to give us  the most persuasive message to buy the right prospect, the usage of visual rhetorical figures by advertisers for developing and creating the convincing advertisement's message is not a random case.

      The function of language in advertising is to express feelings, offer advice, inform and persuade, describe or create. Advertising language can either follow “a prescribed path of advertising clichés” or have the freedom to “deviate from it and from the rules of the language  itself” (Leech, 1972, p.  4). Moreover, the fact of advertising different kinds of products “means making different choices of language and in particular different choices of vocabulary” (Leech,


No can deny that using language in advertising has a huge influence on consumers. Thanks to a smart using of language, companies can make the happiness of people depend on purchasing products. There is always that bright that touches the receiver’s feelings. I am sure you have been exposed to such experience. This does not apply to adults but also to kids. However, most people are not aware how much they are affected by the use of language in media. That brings us back to the article psychology in advertising and  Connotation and Denotation


By Learning English →

Throughout this article, we will try to simplify the difference and relationship  between culture and language. These two are very important components of each society. We will see how culture affects our usage of language and how culture serves language in many ways. Besides the U.S society, we will give examples from other societies. 

How about we take a case of the words we use and how we use them regularly. We all get familiar with those words with the assistance of individuals around us, that is language. In any case, the manner in which we utilize those words that is our culture and lifestyle. 

In American English, there are perpetual stockpile of superlatives even in normal circumstances, for example, Great, Incredible, Phenomenal, and numerous others.

Thus, there are likewise superlatives, for example, killer, sick, sweet, or evil. These words probably won't bode well to everybody. Individuals may utilize these sorts of words dependent on the context and to whom they are talking.

These words mirror the way of life of U.S. what's more, how words links to them and empowers people to guarantee alliance with these subcultures.

Each word we express is a case of the beliefs, qualities and its beginnings. For example, Japan was a farming society depended to its temperament. Thus we can see loads of expressions in Japan worried to the nature and atmosphere.

Another example, in Korea, the term called "our" is for the most part utilized because of their community culture as opposed to independence. The expression utilizing the expression "our" is well known word because of the way of life they follow. This shows the way of life affects the language we talk.

The distinction between two cultures is reflected consummately in their dialects. It is essential to comprehend individuals who grew up with a completely extraordinary arrangement of qualities and convictions to comprehend the genuine connection among language and culture.

At the point when we experience childhood in a general public, we become familiar with the looks, motions and the example of voice and tone of correspondence of that society to underscore what we need to state or do.

These strategies of communication are generally learned by imitation and observing individuals which is a piece of both the language just as culture.


The words we communicate in may be language, however the manner in which we talk them, is all an essential part of our culture that society has been training us from the day we are conceived.

The ramifications of the connection among language and culture is essential to comprehend the values, history and ideologies. One must have the ability to comprehend the cultural foundation of language to genuinely gain proficiency with it.

All in all, how profound is your comprehension to the dialects you have learned? Have you recently remembered their definitions or interpretations, or do you truly comprehend what they mean and what are their implications?


By Learning English →

    It can be said that cultural variation refers to the differences in social, relational,  communicative, commercial and religious behaviors that different cultures exhibit around the world, these differences include not only the way people interact, wear but also how they eat  and practice their customs and celebrate their festivities. Many cultural differences can be explained by the environment and resources of the region. Contemporary variant, culture is  defined as a the social domain that emphasizes the practices, discourses, and material expressions, which over time express the continuities and discontinuities of social meaning of a life held in common.

   According to Sara (2004, p. 11), that culture has been seen in many ways. Many of which
tend to lean toward a common thinking that people are not already born with a certain culture
or cultural thinking. It is thought that the environment and situations in which a person is
immersed within and how they influence him or her and the others who exist in the same
surroundings to behave in certain ways (Hofstede, 1997).

           For messages to be successful in a country which is considered individualistic, the ads
should also encompass the characteristics of individualism. These characteristics include
independence, goals toward the individual and ideas centered around one’s own self. On the
other hand, it has been said that for an advertising message to be successful in a collectivist
country the ad must have collectivists’ characteristics, which are those that are society, family, and community oriented (Sara, 2004, p. 20).

          No one can deny the essential role of culture in advertising, as Khanna (2005, p. 34) said
that in one culture, advertising is persuasive by nature; in another, it is meant to build trust
between companies and consumers. Thus, models of one culture cannot be projected to other
          According to (Majid, 2013, p. 14), understanding cultures is increasingly important for global advertising and Hofstadter model of national is applicable to global advertising and marketing.  The model explains various concepts of self, identity, personality which further helps in devising branding strategies (De Mooij, 2010).  Cultural  values  depicted  in  advertising  are
integrated  part  of consumer  self  rather  than  environmental  factor  (De  Mooij,  2010).
Consumer  self-identity (culture,  image,  values)  along  with  social  and  mental  processes
(previously  described  in consumer  buying  behavior)  affect  the  advertising  appeal  and  style
(De Mooij, 2010).                 


By Learning English →

The use of rhetorical figures must have an impact on consumers’ responses to ads, regardless of the frequency of this impact. Ads do affect consumers psychologically and thus, gain a reaction or response, which, of course, may be negative or positive. A positive impact means that the advertiser has reached his or her goal of selling the product to the consumer while a negative impact may build a negative attitude toward that product or brand. 

This psychological approach to advertising “aims at identifying the effects of advertising at the individual level.” that is, it studies how an individual responds to advertising messages and “the psychological processes that are responsible for the relationship between ad stimuli and consumer responses.” (Fennis & Stroebe, 2010, p. 11). However, attitudes toward specific type advertising may be affected by the attitude toward advertising in general, which is also part of the human psyche (Christian, Zandêk, & Lucie, 2014). 

        The use of rhetorical figures has a positive effect on consumers’ attitudes toward advertising higher than that of verbal figures. Advertisements with less or without visual or verbal rhetorical figures are more memorable than those which use rhetorical figures because the viewer or the consumer devotes all of his or her cognitive resources to solve the deviation the rhetorical figure used by the advertiser
        The attitude toward the advertisement has an impact on the attitude toward the brand. Thus, a positive attitude toward the advertisement means a positive attitude toward the brand and vice versa. Therefore, a positive attitude toward any ad or brand results in a purchasing intentions in the consumer. Selling the product and making the consumer familiar with the brand is the only aim any advertiser has, which pushes his or her to employ all the means to get his or her advertising message through the mind and the heart of the receiver or reader.

        Advertisers should pay more attention to the process of making the advertisement and how it is going to reach the intended effect on the consumer than to the amount of money spent on it (Kotler ir kt. (1992); Blackwell Roger D., Miniard Paul W., & Engel James F. (2005);  cited in Jakštienė, Susnienė, & Narbutas, 2008). The market is like a battlefield, if the advertiser does not compete to deliver his or her message appropriately and successfully, he or she will lose its name in the market.

      Thus, the role of visuals used in advertising is to convey or create feeling (Gombrich, 1984, 1995; Tatarkiewicz, 1970; cited in Scott & Batra, 2003, p. 75). These feelings or emotions are the constituents of the human psychology, which the advertiser aims at arousing or evoking in order to get the consumer’s attention to the product and, why not, getting him or her to purchase the product (ibid.).


By Learning English →

       The very purpose of any advertisement is to capture audiences’ attention and reach the action of selling the product or “to make us more favorably disposed in general terms to the  advertised product or service” (Goddard, 1998, p. 11). But, to reach this goal the advertiser has to pay much attention to the content or constituents of the ad because the content is of paramount importance when it comes to ad liking or not liking.  A sophisticated and well designed ad content will undoubtedly have a significant influence on consumers’ attitudes toward advertising.
  There are many elements that can be induced in an ad to appeal to the audience or the viewer. These elements include the use: celebrity endorsement, vulgarities, humor, fear, message complexity, religious taboos, color, and so on. Breaking away from the audience expectation by breaking social norms of a particular society or culture enhances ad recall and memorability because of the amount of attention given to such kind of advertisements either because they are shocking or they are not.

        According to Goddard (1998), advertisements sometimes tend to shock the audience to
draw extra attention. She also stated that “women have been used as sexual commodities for
many years in the selling of products as disparate as cars and chocolate bars”. Advertisers use
offensive content, such as naked women or indecent language, to get noticed and gain extra
attention. “Visual elements must carry meaningful variation in their manner of delivery, such that
the selection of style can suggest an intended evaluation” (Scott, 1994). Sexuality is associated
with pleasure; thus, watching ads with sexual content may be pleasurable and so the viewer will
look at the advertisement a bit longer. “Sex sells. It always has, beyond that cliché’s inevitable
appearance in media and marketing conversations. Obvious sexual availability serves as both
 attention‐getter and deal‐maker, and it is as old as our species” 
(Reichert, Lambiase, 2006: preface, cited in Valiulytė, 2010).

         Another example of ad content is ‘rhetorical figures. Rhetorical figures, which are “artful
deviations”, play and important role in the ad message delivery because they use message style
as a persuasive tool (Andrews, 2011). Visual rhetorical stimuli are more persuasive and
impressive than verbal rhetorical or literal rhetorical ad stimuli because the use of visual rhetoric
in a persuasive context makes a positive first impression on people (ibid.).

        Advertising content is about the amount and kind of information disclosed to the consumer
and how it is displayed. Most advertisements contain little direct information and many of them
do not mention product price. “Consumers are often purely informed about the price and
attributes of products that they buy infrequently” (Anderson & Renault, 2004). However,
restricting ad information may have negative effects on the performance. In a seminal study by
Rensik and Stern (1977) (Cited in Anderson & Renault, 2004), they presented fourteen
information cues that exist in advertisements which include: price, quality, performance,
availability, nutrition, warranties, and so on and forth.
        Visual information does not transmit information and messages in the same way as verbal
information does (McQuarrie & Philips, 2005). Visuals messages are effectively delivered and
easily memorized and processed. Thus, they are more appropriate in getting the advertisement
message through and reach the intended goal. Furthermore, the content of the advertisement is
of paramount importance in creating an impressive and thorough ad that can attract consumers’
attention and drive them to buy the product or at least build a positive attitude toward the brand
or product.

         Grabbing audience attention is the aim of any advertiser. This aim can only be achieved
through a well-shaped, highly designed, appealing, and pleasurable advertisement. 


By Learning English →
    Connotation and Denotation are two head methods for depicting the implications of words. Connotation alludes to the wide exhibit of positive and negative associations that most words normally convey with them, while indication is the exact, literal meaning of a word that may be found in a dictionary.

    Connotation alludes to the wide cluster of positive and negative affiliations that most words normally convey with them, while Denotation is the exact, strict meaning of a word that may be found in a word reference. The word ‘denotation’ means the literal meaning we give to words, it is the meaning we find in dictionaries, it is also the descriptive meaning of the words; for instance, the word ‘light’ and ‘dark’ if we search for them in the dictionary we will find the meaning as follow:

Light: noun: the natural agent that stimulates sight and makes things visible.
 Verb: provide with light.
          Adjective: of little weight; something very light.
Dark: noun: the absence of light in, a place. 
          Adjective: with little or no light.

         These two words are defined by the Word web dictionary, which means the denotation is the dictionary definition which provides a literal and descriptive meaning to the word. However, the word connotation means the mental, emotional and social associations that link or made with words. It is about the conventions and the cultural background that affect the meaning of words and terms. As the first example, let us take the same words; I mean the word ‘light’ and ‘dark’ to find out what they exactly mean when it comes to connotation vision: Light: when you think of light this is what really comes to mind; sun, life, glow, faith, plants,
energy and so on, and that expresses the connotation of light.

       The other verb is dark: evil, fear, despair, sadness and so on. Dark has many negative
connotations among the people when we use connotation is to improve writing by using words
that give ideas beyond their literal meaning. Sturken and Cartwright (2001) explain the notion of connotation and denotation as follows:


                                                           Robert Frank _Trolley-New Orleans, 1955/56

    This image has two levels of significance. French scholar Roland Barthes portrayed these two levels with terms denotative and connotative meaning. A picture can indicate certain clear truth, giving narrative proof of objective circumstances. The denotative meaning alludes to its exacting, illustrative importance, a similar photo implies all the more socially explicit implications. Connotative meanings depend on the social and verifiable setting of the picture and its watchers lived, felt information on those conditions all that the picture intends to them. Robert Frank photo means a gathering of travelers on a trolley. However, its importance is more extensive than this basic portrayal. This picture indicates an aggregate excursion of life and race connection. The isolating line between what a picture indicates and what it means can be vague, as right now, the reality of isolation alone may deliver specific connotative relationship for certain viewers. These two ideas help us to consider the contrasts between pictures working as proof and as works that inspire progressively complex sentiments and associations.

   In Roland Barthes's analysis, he utilized the term 'Myth' to allude to the social beliefs and convictions that are communicated at this level of Connotation. For Barthes, myth is the concealed arrangement of rules and shows through which Connotative implications are made to appear to be all inclusive and given for an entire society. Fantasy hence permits the Connotative importance of a specific thing or picture to be denotative, Barthes contended that a French Ad for Italian sauce and pasta isn't just introducing an item, however is creating a myth about Italian culture – the idea of 'Italianicity'. This message, composed Barthes, isn't for Italians, however is explicitly about a French idea of Italian culture. So also, one could contend that the contemporary ideas of excellence and slimness naturalize certain culture standards of appearance as being widespread.


By Learning English →

In this essay, I will try to introduce you to the meaning of visual rhetoric with a deep explanation of this term by using a couple references.  Also, I will try to give you visual rhetoric analysis and examples.  

    Visual rhetoric falls under a gathering of terms which all include visual literacy. Genuinely, the ongoing improvement of a theoretical structure that depicts how visual pictures communicate, rather than aural, verbal, or some other sorts of messages collects numerous strategies and devices that lead to an away from of the messages.

The term visual rhetoric has two implications in the control of talk. Mostly, it is used to mean both a visual item or curio and a point of view on the investigation of visual information. In the principal sense, visual talk is an item people make as they utilize visual images to convey. In the second, it is a point of view researchers apply that centers around the emblematic procedures by which visual rhetoric perform correspondence (Hill and Helmers, 200p. 304).

In addition, as indicated by Hill and Helmers (2008 p. 304), visual rhetoric is the genuine picture or object talk creates when the individual in question utilizes visual images to impart.

It is the unmistakable proof or result of the imaginative demonstration, for example, an artistic creation, a promotion, a photo, or a structure and establishes the information of study for explanatory researchers intrigued by visual images. Visual rhetoric as an ancient rarity, at that point, is the creation or course of action of hues, structures, and different components to speak with a crowd of people. More than that, they propose that visual talk is an emblematic activity in that the relationship, it assigns among picture and appeal is self-assertive, rather than a sign, where a characteristic relationship exists between the sign and the article to which it is associated. Visual rhetoric likewise includes human activity or the like in that the production of a picture includes the cognizant choice to impart just as cognizant decisions about the methodologies to utilize in regions, for example, shading, structure, medium, and size (Hill and Helmers, 2008, p. 305).

   Be that as it may, visual rhetoric may not be utilized to convince individuals by talk and may not be adding to standard meanings of reasonable open communication, yet its belongings are noteworthy and absolutely not constantly negative. The world delivered by visual rhetoric is not continuously—or even frequently—clear, efficient, or objective, however is, rather, a world made up of human encounters that are untidy, passionate, divided, senseless, genuine, and muddled.

   Studies visual rhetoric center around assessment, Then, extend explanatory hypothesis to incorporate more extensive criteria for the assessment of talk that all the more precisely catch and recognize the job of the visual in our reality (Hill and Helmers, 2008, p. 310).
Visual rhetoric has all the earmarks of being a ground-breaking gadget fit for creating an increasingly inspirational mentality close to the advertisement related with an excess of great over ominous elaboration. Besides, the positive effect of visual .

              More than that, they suggest that visual rhetoric is a symbolic action in that the
relationship, it designates between image and exhortation is arbitrary, in contrast to a sign,
where a natural relationship exists between the sign and the object to which it is connected.
Visual rhetoric also involves human action of some kind in that the creation of an image involves
the conscious decision to communicate as well as conscious choices about the strategies to
employ in areas such as color, form, medium, and size (Hill & Helmers, 2008, p. 305).
             However, visual rhetoric may not be used to persuade audiences by rhetoric and may not
be contributing to standard definitions of rational public communication, but its effects are
significant and certainly not always negative. The world produced by visual rhetoric is not
always—or even often—clear, well organized, or rational, but is, instead, a world made up of human experiences that are messy, emotional, fragmented, silly, serious, and disorganized. Studies visual rhetoric focus on evaluation, Then, expand rhetorical theory to include broader criteria for the evaluation of rhetoric that more accurately capture and acknowledge the role of
the visual in our world (Hill & Helmers, 2008, p. 310).

        Visual rhetoric appears to be a powerful device capable of producing a more positive attitude
toward the ad associated with a surplus of favorable over unfavorable elaboration. Moreover,
the positive impact of visual rhetoric does not come at any obvious cost—ad versions, and with
visual rhetoric are no less effective at communicating, and no more difficult to understand. The
treatment effect of visual rhetoric is also well behaved, inasmuch as it conforms to the model
presented in McQuarrie and Mick (1996), with the visual tropes in this study able to produce a
more positive attitude than visual schemes (McQuarrie & Mick1999, p. 12).



By Learning English →