By Learning English

    It can be said that cultural variation refers to the differences in social, relational,  communicative, commercial and religious behaviors that different cultures exhibit around the world, these differences include not only the way people interact, wear but also how they eat  and practice their customs and celebrate their festivities. Many cultural differences can be explained by the environment and resources of the region. Contemporary variant, culture is  defined as a the social domain that emphasizes the practices, discourses, and material expressions, which over time express the continuities and discontinuities of social meaning of a life held in common.

   According to Sara (2004, p. 11), that culture has been seen in many ways. Many of which
tend to lean toward a common thinking that people are not already born with a certain culture
or cultural thinking. It is thought that the environment and situations in which a person is
immersed within and how they influence him or her and the others who exist in the same
surroundings to behave in certain ways (Hofstede, 1997).

           For messages to be successful in a country which is considered individualistic, the ads
should also encompass the characteristics of individualism. These characteristics include
independence, goals toward the individual and ideas centered around one’s own self. On the
other hand, it has been said that for an advertising message to be successful in a collectivist
country the ad must have collectivists’ characteristics, which are those that are society, family, and community oriented (Sara, 2004, p. 20).

          No one can deny the essential role of culture in advertising, as Khanna (2005, p. 34) said
that in one culture, advertising is persuasive by nature; in another, it is meant to build trust
between companies and consumers. Thus, models of one culture cannot be projected to other
          According to (Majid, 2013, p. 14), understanding cultures is increasingly important for global advertising and Hofstadter model of national is applicable to global advertising and marketing.  The model explains various concepts of self, identity, personality which further helps in devising branding strategies (De Mooij, 2010).  Cultural  values  depicted  in  advertising  are
integrated  part  of consumer  self  rather  than  environmental  factor  (De  Mooij,  2010).
Consumer  self-identity (culture,  image,  values)  along  with  social  and  mental  processes
(previously  described  in consumer  buying  behavior)  affect  the  advertising  appeal  and  style
(De Mooij, 2010).                 

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